A misappropriation of assets may exist, and it is more likely to be detected by independent auditors. ) Different interests may exist between the company preparing the statements and the persons using the statementsA misstatement of account balances may exist and is generally corrected as the result of the independent auditor’s workPoorly designed internal controls may be in existence
) confirms the accuracy of management’s financial representations lends credibility to the financial statementsguarantees that financial data are fairly presented.assures the readers of financial statements that any fraudulent activity has been corrected.
form an opinion on the financial statements detect fraud. evaluate management. assess control risk.
Misappropriation of an asset or groups of assets. Clerical mistakes in the accounting data underlying the financial statements.Mistakes in the application of accounting principles. Misinterpretation of facts that existed when the financial statements were prepared
Limited Negative Limited Reasonable Reasonable Reasonable Limited Limited Reasonable Reasonable Limited Limited
Audit procedures that are effective for detecting unintentional misstatements may be ineffective for an intentional misstatement that is concealed through collusion. An audit is designed to provide reasonable assurance of detecting material errors, but there is no similar responsibility concerning fraud.The factors considered in assessing control risk indicated an increased risk of intentional misstatements, but only a low risk of unintentional misstatementsThe auditor did not consider factors influencing audit risk for account balances that have effects pervasive to the financial statements taken as a whole.
A sales invoice issued by the client and supported by a delivery receipt from an outside trucker. Confirmation of an account payable balance mailed by and returned directly to the auditorA check, issued by the company and bearing the payee’s endorsement, that is included with the bank statements mailed directly to the auditorAn audit schedule prepared by the client’s controller and reviewed by the client’s treasurer
physical examination by the auditor. calculations by the auditor from company records. confirmations received directly from third parties. external documents.
Vendor’s invoice Bank statement obtained from the client Computations made by the auditor Pre-numbered sales invoices
Information obtained indirectly from outside sources is the most reliable audit evidence. To be reliable, audit evidence should be convincing rather than merely persuasiveReliability of audit evidence refers to the amount of corroborative evidence obtainedEffective internal control provides more assurance about the reliability of audit evidence.
To coordinate the audit To assist in preparation of the audit report. To support the financial statements. To provide evidence of the audit work performed
a client-owned record of conclusions reached by the auditors who performed the engagement evidence supporting financial statements.support for the auditor’s representations as to compliance with auditing standards) a record to be used as a basis for the following year’s engagement
copies of those client records examined by the auditor during the course of the engagement evaluation of the efficiency and competence of the audit staff assistants by the partner responsible for the auditauditor’s comments concerning the efficiency and competence of client management personnel. auditing procedures followed and the testing performed in obtaining evidential matter.
lead schedule. attorney’s letters. bank statements. debt agreements.
Arrange to make copies, for inclusion in the audit files, of those client supporting documents examined by the auditor. Arrange to provide the client with copies of the audit programs to be used during the auditArrange a preliminary conference with the client to discuss audit objectives, fees, timing, and other informationArrange to have the auditor prepare and post any necessary adjusting or reclassification entries prior to final closing
confirming the existence of the related parties. verifying the valuation of related party transactionevaluating the disclosure of the related party transactions.ascertaining the rights and obligations of the related parties
Writing down obsolete inventory prior to year end. Failing to correct weaknesses in the client’s internal control structure. An unexplained increase in gross margin. Borrowing money at a rate significantly below the market rate
auditor expresses a qualified opinion as a result of the specialist’s findings. specialist is not independent of the clientauditor wishes to indicate a division of responsibility. specialist’s work provides the auditor greater assurance of reliability
Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No No
the predecessor’s work should be used the company follows the policy of rotating its auditors. in the predecessor’s opinion internal control of the company has been satisfactory. the engagement should be accepted.
specialized accounting principles of the client’s industry. the competency of the client’s internal audit staff) the uncertainty inherent in applying sampling procedures. disagreements with management as to auditing procedures
material weaknesses of internal control. the predictability of financial data from individual transactions. the various assertions that are embodied in the financial statements. areas that may represent specific risks relevant to the audit.
Yes No Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No No
Accounts receivable turnover Earnings per share Gross profit percent Return on assets before interest and taxes
An increase in property tax rates has not been recognized in the company’s 2007 accrual. The cashier began lapping accounts receivable in 2007. Because of worsening economic conditions, the 2007 provision for uncollectible accounts was inadequate. The company changed its capitalization policy for small tools in 2007.
Materiality is determined by reference to guidelines established by the AICPA Materiality depends only on the dollar amount of an item relative to other items in the financial statementsMateriality depends on the nature of an item rather than the dollar amount. Materiality is a matter of professional judgment.
scope of the audit of specific accounts. specific transactions that should be reviewed. effects of audit exceptions upon the opinion. effects of the CPA’s direct financial interest in a client upon the CPA’s independence.
$10,000 $15,000 $20,000 $30,000
materiality. comparative analysis. reasonable assurance. relative risk.
Auditor judgment Materiality Inherent risk Reasonable assurance
Cash audit work may have to be carried out in a more conclusive manner than inventory audit work. Intercompany transactions are usually subject to less detailed scrutiny than arm’s-length transactions with outside parties. Inventories may require more attention by the auditor on an engagement for a merchandising enterprise than on an engagement for a public utility. The scope of the audit need not be expanded if misstatements that arouse suspicion of fraud are of relatively insignificant amounts
The concept of materiality recognizes that some matters are important for fair presentation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP, whereas other matters are not important. An auditor considers materiality for planning purposes in terms of the largest aggregate level of misstatements that could be material to any one of the financial statementsMateriality judgments are made in light of surrounding circumstances and necessarily involve both quantitative and qualitative judgments. An auditor’s consideration of materiality is influenced by the auditor’s perception of the needs of a reasonable person who will rely on the financial statements.
arise from the misapplication of auditing procedures may be assessed in either quantitative or non-quantitative termsexist independently of the financial statement auditcan be changed at the auditor’s discretion.
decrease detection risk. increase materiality levels. decrease substantive testing. increase inherent risk.
employment of competent personnel provides assurance that management’s control objectives will be achieved establishment and maintenance of internal control is an important responsibility of the management and not of the auditor. cost of internal control should not exceed the benefits expected to be derived there from. separation of incompatible functions is necessary to ascertain that the internal control is effective
the likelihood of fraud is minimal there are no control deficiencies.internal control over financial reporting is operating effectively. the financial statements are fairly presented in all material respects
all controls related to the objectives of reliable financial reporting, efficiency and effectiveness of operations, and compliance with laws and regulations. controls solely related to the reliability of financial reporting objective.controls related to the compliance with laws and regulations objectivecontrols related to the reliability of financial reporting objective in addition to those controls related to operations and compliance with laws and regulations objectives that could materially affect financial reporting.
To comply with generally accepted accounting principles To obtain a measure of assurance of management’s efficiencyTo maintain a state of independence in mental attitude during the auditTo determine the nature, timing, and extent of subsequent audit work.
an auditor during the typical obtaining of an understanding of internal control and assessment of control risk. a controller when reconciling accounts in the general ledger. employees in the normal course of performing their assigned functions. the chief financial officer when reviewing interim financial statements.
more than remotely adversely affects a company’s ability to initiate, authorize, record, process, or report external financial statements reliably results in more than a remote likelihood that internal control will not prevent or detect material financial statement misstatementsexists because a necessary control is missing or not properly designed. reduces the efficiency and effectiveness of the entity’s operations.
will be unable to issue an unqualified opinion on the financial statements. must issue a qualified or disclaimer of opinion on internal control over financial reporting. may still be able to issue an unqualified opinion on internal control over financial reporting.must issue an adverse opinion on internal control over financial reporting.
must communicate to management all deficiencies identified. must communicate both significant deficiencies and material weaknesses to those charged with governancemay communicate orally or in writing to the board all significant deficiencies and material weaknesses identified.must issue an adverse opinion on the financial statements.
factors that raise doubts about the auditability of the financial statements operating effectiveness of internal controls. risk that material misstatements exist in the financial statements. possibility that the nature and extent of substantive tests may be reduced.
evaluate the effectiveness of the entity’s internal controls. identify transactions and account balances where inherent risk is at the maximumindicate whether materiality thresholds for planning and evaluation purposes are sufficiently high. determine the acceptable level of detection risk for financial statement assertions.
increase inherent risk. increase materiality levels. decrease substantive testing. decrease planned detection risk.
must be done in every audit of a public company’s financial statements. provide persuasive evidence that a material misstatement exists when the auditor determines that the control is not being consistently appliedare often based on the same types of audit techniques used to gain an understanding of internal controls, except the extent of testing is generally greater when testing controlsallow a reduction in the extent of substantive testing, as long as the results of the tests of controls are equal to or better than what the auditor expects.